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German speakers: Is this good advise?

Beiträge: 132
Registriert: 20. Okt 2017, 03:01

German speakers: Is this good advise?

Beitrag von slam » 6. Mär 2018, 06:12

Kartnik Venkatesh on Quora gave this advise for learning German. He is not a native German speaker but was learning the language. So is this good advise?

Sentence construction:

In sentence construction, the modal verb is always conjugated and the rest of the verbs are pushed to the end. The modal verbs are können, müssen, dürfen, mögen, wollen, and sollen.

Ex: Ich kann Deutsch sprechen. | Ich muss jetzt essen. | Darf ich rauchen?

I can speak German | I must eat now | May I smoke?
Always remember the order of the sentence : TeKaMoLo (Temporal, Kausal, Modal, Local) or Wann - Warum - Wie - Wo

Ex: Josh hat gestern aus Rücksicht auf seine Oma sehr laut am Küchentisch gesprochen.

Josh spoke yesterday out of consideration for his grandmother loudly at the kitchen table. (crude sentence)

Temporal : yesterday; Kausal : out of consideration... ; Modal: loudly ; Local : at the kitchen table.
Trennbare Verben are essentially verbs which have a prefix and that are separable. For example: ausmachen, einziehen, aufheben, mitmachen etc. When these verbs are used in a sentence, the actual verb is conjugated and put in the second place while the prefix is pushed to the last.

Ex: Ich mache das Licht aus.

But when the modal verbs are also used in the sentence, they have to be conjugated and the whole trennbares verb is pushed to the last place.

Ex: Ich muss das Licht ausmachen.

CAVEAT: Not all prefixes amount to trennbare verben. There are some prefixes which are used and the verb as a whole is considered as a single entity and must NOT be split. These prefixes are: ent-, be-, ver-, er-, ge-, miss-, zer-

Ex: Ich verstehe dich.
When the words like wenn, weil, dass (if, because, that) etc come, the conjugated modal verb goes to the last place and the other verb(s) are placed just before that.

Ex: Ich freue mich, dass du heute da bist. | Ich dachte, dass wir zu seiner Veranstaltung gehen könnten.

I am happy that you are here | I thought that we could go for his event
In a sentence, Dativ always comes before Akkusativ unless personal pronouns are used.

Ex: Er schickte dem Professor den Bericht (but) Er schickte ihn ihm.
One can use um...zu construction to explain the action further of the same subject. (um...zu = in order to)

Ex: Ich arbeite lange Stunden, um mehr Geld zu verdienen (or) Ich arbeite lange Stunden, um mehr Geld verdienen zu können.

I work long hours in order to earn more money.
One can use the damit construction to explain the action further when the subjects are different. (damit = so that)

Ex: Ich lerne Deutsch, damit meine Freundin mich besser verstehen kann.

I am learning German so that my girlfriend can understand me better

Prepositions and declensions:

Aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu (out, by/at, with, after/to, since, of/from, to/at) always have Dativ after them.

Bis, durch, ohne, für, gegen, um, and außer (until/to/by, through/by, without, for, against, around, except) always have Akkusativ after the

Auf, über, unter, an, neben, in, hinter, vor, zwischen (on, over, under, at, nearby, in, behind, in front of, between) have Dativ (if the object is at rest) or Akkusativ (if the object is in motion).

haben or sein?

If the verb that is being used indicates a change of state or a movement, then one must use sein. If the verb does not indicate that, one must use haben.

Ex: Ich bin nach Deutschland geflogen | Ich bin eingeschlafen

I flew to Germany | I fell asleep.

Ex: Ich habe gegessen | Ich habe das gelernt

I have eaten | I have learnt that.

Verbs which take Dativ:

There is no trick to learn the verbs and the following case declensions. Some verbs are followed by Dativ declension and some verbs by Akkusativ. Here, I will list some of the verbs which are followed by Dativ.

antworten (to answer); ausweichen (to avoid / be evasive); begegnen (to meet); danken (to thank); dienen (to serve); droben (to threaten); fehlen (to be lacking); folgen (to follow); gefallen (to be pleasing); gehorchen (to obey); gehören (to belong); gelingen (to succeed); genügen (to suffice / be enough); gleichen (to resemble); gratulieren (to congratuate); helfen (to help); nutzen (to be of use/ utilize); passen (to fit); raten (to advise); schaden (to be harmful); trotzen (to defy); vertrauen (to trust); verzeihen (to excuse); weh tun (to hurt); widersprechen (to contradict); zustimmen (to agree to).